Doença periodontal e obesidade: existe alguma relação?

Patrícia Fernanda Roesler Bertolini, Oswaldo Biondi Filho, Arnaldo Pomilio, Patrícia Eleni Vinha Alves

Resumo


As doenças periodontais são associadas à agressão microbiana específica e à resposta inflamatória e imunológica do hospedeiro. Assim, patologias sistêmicas são consideradas fatores de risco para as doenças periodontais, pois alteram as respostas teciduais, destacando-se aí a obesidade, que tem sido relacionada à periodontite. Este trabalho discute como é estabelecida a relação entre a obesidade e as doenças periodontais. Entre os mecanismos biológicos caracterizados para explicar esta associação, está o fato de a obesidade visceral aumentar o inibidor da ativação do plasminogênio-1, fazendo decrescer o fluxo sanguíneo nos tecidos periodontais, o que altera a resposta inflamatória, consistindo assim, num risco para o desenvolvimento da periodontite. Estudos demonstraram que a secreção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias, como o fator de necrose tumoral alfa e as interleucinas, é proporcional à circunferência abdominal do indivíduo, o que pode torná-lo suscetível às alterações inflamatórias crônicas, como a periodontite, na presença de um biofilme bacteriano específico. Portanto, estudos demonstram a possibilidade de associação biológica entre doença periodontal e obesidade, por esta influenciar tanto na resposta do hospedeiro quanto numa possível relação microbiológica, de modo que o tratamento do paciente obeso deve contar com equipe multidisciplinar, aí incluído o cirurgião-dentista.

Termos de indexação: Citocinas. Obesidade. Periodontia.


Palavras-chave


Citocinas. Obesidade. Periodontia.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24220/2318-0897v19n1/6a830

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Revista de Ciências Médicas

ISSNe 2318-0897 (eletrônico)
ISSN 1415-5796 (impresso)

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