Alterações farmacocinéticas de antimicrobianos em situações especiais: uma revisão narrativa

Camila Tavares de Sousa, Virgínia Paula Frade, Letícia Vieira, Thaís Lorenna Souza Sales, Gabrielle Kéfrem Alves Gomes, Cristina Sanches

Resumo


Até o ano de 1940, as doenças infecciosas eram uma das principais causas de morte no Brasil. Atualmente, apesar de um grande declínio, a mortalidade ainda é elevada em relação a países desenvolvidos e a outros países da América Latina. Dessa maneira, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi relatar as alterações fi siológicas em condições específi cas, as consequências na farmacocinética dos antimicrobianos e ainda o impacto do ajuste de dose em tais situações. Realizou-se uma revisão narrativa de artigos publicados sobre a utilização de antimicrobianos nas seguintes situações: doença crítica e sepse, alcoolismo, tabagismo, extremos de idade, obesidade, nutrientes, polimorfismo genético, gravidez e lactação, insuficiência cardíaca, insuficiência hepática e renal. Observou-se que as alterações fisiológicas em tais situações afetam a farmacocinética dos antimicrobianos, modificando os processos de absorção, distribuição, metabolismo e excreção, os quais dependem muitas vezes da natureza do fármaco, podendo requerer ajuste de dose. Pôde-se concluir que as alterações observadas reduzem a precisão de uma dose terapêutica eficaz, evidenciando, dessa maneira, a importância do ajuste de dose.


Palavras-chave


nti-infecciosos. Farmacocinética. Infecções.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24220/2318-0897v27n3a4014

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Revista de Ciências Médicas

ISSNe 2318-0897 (eletrônico)
ISSN 1415-5796 (impresso)

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