Classificação da intolerância à lactose: uma visão geral sobre causas e tratamentos

Maiara de Souza Castelo BRANCO, Nayara Rodrigues DIAS, Luis Gustavo Romani FERNANDES, Elaine Cristina BERRO, Patricia Ucelli SIMIONI

Resumo


A deficiência total ou parcial da enzima denominada lactase, responsável por hidrolisar em glicose e galactose a lactose presente no leite, é popularmente conhecida como intolerância à lactose. No presente trabalho foram revisadas as causas e tratamentos para intolerância à lactose. Foi realizada uma revisão retrospectiva e integrativa da literatura nas bases SciELO, MedLine e PubMed. A intolerância possui três classificações: primária, secundária e congênita. A intolerância ontogenética à lactose ou hipolactasia primária adulta é a forma mais comum. Já a deficiência secundária consiste em um quadro fisiopatológico que tem como consequência a má absorção de lactose. Por fim, a intolerância congênita à lactose é uma deficiência de herança genética, que acomete recém-nascidos nos primeiros dias de vida. Na hipolactasia, o agravamento surge na vida adulta, justamente com perda da função gradativa da enzima que degrada a lactose. Isso ocorre pelo fato de essa enzima, presente e ativa durante a amamentação em mamífero, perder sua função no início do desmame. Em pacientes não intolerantes, essa mesma enzima passa por um processo de mutação, permanecendo ativa ao longo da vida adulta. O tratamento mais comum para pacientes com intolerância à lactose envolve a retirada total ou parcial do leite e seus derivados, já que a supressão total causa alguns danos à nutrição e à manutenção do organismo.


Palavras-chave


Intolerância à lactose. Lactase. Proteínas do leite. Revisão.

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Referências


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24220/2318-0897v26n3a3812

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Revista de Ciências Médicas

ISSNe 2318-0897 (eletrônico)
ISSN 1415-5796 (impresso)

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